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Carpeting Terminology Glossary

Carpeting and Carpet Cleaning Industry Terminology

Carpet Cleaning and Carpeting Industry Terminology Glossary

You may have been shopping around your local carpet store recently and have been exposed to some industry terminology that you were unfamiliar with. Or perhaps you were getting your carpets professionally cleaned and your technician mentioned some industry jargon that you hadn't heard of before.

As the benchmark professional carpet cleaning company in Brisbane, PRO DRY Carpet Cleaning is well-versed when it comes to industry terminology, methods, techniques, standards, and practices. We have compiled the most comprehensive list of terms, definitions, and meanings into a master glossary for you to read and gain a new understanding.

Carpeting Terminology Glossary


Abrasive Wear

Wear or texture alteration that commonly occurs in an area of the carpet damaged due to prolonged friction caused by rubbing or heavy foot traffic.

Absorbent Compound

A cleaning product designed for carpets that consists of a carefully formulated blend of solvents, detergents, and other specialised components. It is sprinkled onto carpets and is designed to absorb the stains before being vacuumed up later.


When it comes to getting rid of alkaline substances on carpets it is common practice to use an acid-based cleaning solution, which has a pH level of less than 7. This type of solution is widely used because of its ability to effectively tackle alkaline-based stains.

Acid Rinse

Also known as a "brown out" rinse, an acid rinse involves using a solution that is acid-based and is run through the extraction cleaning system. This rinse works efficiently to eliminate any leftover residual detergent and brings down the pH level ensuring better cleaning results.


During the cleaning process, carpet fibres are thoroughly brushed to loosen dirt and debris. This helps make it easier to remove them later during the cleaning procedure.


When it comes to getting rid of greasy and oily soils, it is common practice to use an alkaline-based cleaning solution, which has a pH level of more than 7. This type of solution is widely used because of its ability to effectively tackle grease and oils.


An antimicrobial treatment is formulated with chemicals that effectively reduce the growth of bacteria, fungi, yeast, mould and mildew. This innovative property aims to create an environment that prevents the spread of these microorganisms thus promoting a healthier space.


The ability for a carpet to effectively dissipate an electrostatic charge in order to prevent it from reaching a level that could potentially affect individuals.

Attached Cushion

A padding that is made of foam rubber or polyurethane which is an integral part of the backing material.

Atmospheric Soil/Dirt

In carpeting, this refers to the build-up of dust smoke, cooking vapours, and other airborne pollutants that settle on the floors surface.

Average Pile Density

Pile density measures the weight of yarn relative to the carpets size. It is usually measured in ounces per yard. To calculate it; Density = (pile yarn weight in ounces per square yard) × 36 / (pile thickness or height in inches). In commercial carpets the average pile density ranges from 4200 to 8000.


Originating from Axminster, England, these carpets are renowned for their patterns created through a combination of machine and hand weaving. They use quality worsted chenille strips, with captivating colours all supported by a jute backing. They are considered amongst the best carpets to buy and remain a popular choice to this day. Furthermore a machine crafted version closely replicates the elegance of the carpets design while surpassing it in terms of superior materials.



The layer that forms the underside of the carpet which rests on the floor is referred to as the carpet backing. In tufted carpets there are two types of backing.

- Primary Carpet Backing
A woven or nonwoven material into which the tufting needles insert the yarn.

- Secondary Carpet Backing
In this step the fabric is expertly laminated to the back of the carpet to create a bond that offers reinforcement.

The material used for a carpet backing can vary and some of the most popular ones used are Latex, Thermoplastics (PVC, Polyolefin, and Hot Melt-Backed), Polyurethane, and Jute.

Beck Dye

The tufted carpet goes through dyeing in a large vat filled with dye liquor. The carpet roll is turned into a loop and continuously rotated, allowing it to soak in the vat for several hours. This method is commonly employed for achieving custom colours in cut pile carpets and provides flexibility.


When moisture comes into contact with the dyes used on the carpet there can be a colour change or transfer. Carpet dye bleeding is not a common occurrence, and it particularly occurs in Persian and Oriental rugs. It can be caused by various factors, including those related to manufacturing or incorrect cleaning procedures.


When carpet fibres untwist, it is known as blooming. It can happen from a few causes including excessive agitation, rubbing, and general wear and tear.

Bonnet Cleaning

A low moisture cleaning technique that involves the use of a rotary machine with a cleaning pad or bonnet to effectively agitate and remove dirt from carpet fibres.

Bound Carpet

A versatile and customisable flooring option bound carpets offer the advantage of cutting and expert binding through stitching or serging on all sides without being affixed to the floor.


To improve the effectiveness of the cleaning solution and make water softening easier certain compounds are added and this is known as a ‘Builder’. This enhances the performance of the cleaning process.


The process of fluffing up yarns to provide more coverage, most commonly done by crimping.



The carpet has a cut pile construction that showcases chunky tufts and a generous pile height. Carpet tiles, also known as "modular carpet" are square-shaped and come in sizes such as 60 x 60 96 x 96 48 x 48 or 50 x 50 cm.

Carpet Extractor

A high quality machine for cleaning carpets that employs a spraying mechanism which utilises water and sometimes a separate solution for cleansing. Subsequently the machine effectively extracts the solution along with dirt using its vacuum.

Carpet Tiles

Carpet tiles are square cuts of carpets often used in commercial settings. They are extremely durable and come in a variety of colours, textured patterns, or intricate designs. Additionally, carpet tiles can be easily removed or swapped for cleaning or repairs.

Carpet Shampooing

Carpet shampooing is a carpet cleaning technique that involves the application of a shampoo solution, followed by agitation of the solution using a rotary scrubber or counter rotating brush machine, and the subsequent removal of the solution and dirt using a wet vacuum.

Cleaning Solution

A liquid solution is employed for cleaning, commonly comprising a mixture of water, detergents, and other cleaning agents depending on its intended use.

Cellulosic Browning

A natural phenomenon characterised by a brownish discolouration that can occur on various types of natural fibres which contain cellulose. After exposure to moisture, the lignin in the fibres can release this colour which will then wick up to the surface of the pile.


Cellulose fibres are made with ethers or esters of cellulose, which can be derived from the bark, leaves, or wood of plants, or from other plant-based material.


A phenomenon where the carpet becomes wet and residue from previous cleaning solutions, which were not properly rinsed, resurface, thus resulting in a cloudy effect on the carpet.

Corn Rowing

Corn rows may occur in certain carpet styles, especially in high-traffic areas. It’s the appearance of rows of carpet fibre that alternates between high and low, and it’s more typical on higher cut pile carpets.


A fibre or carpet's colour retention depends on its resistance to factors such as:

1. UV light exposure
2. Crocking (wet or dry)
3. Atmospheric conditions, meeting manufacturers' and government test standards.


When it comes to making carpets there are processes involved such as tufting, weaving, or bonding. These processes take into account factors such as density, yarn twist level, dyeing method, and the type of fibre used.

Conventional Backing

In carpet manufacturing a combination of a primary and secondary latex-laminated woven or nonwoven fabric.

Crock Fastness

Crock fastness refers to how colourants stay on a yarn or fabric surface without transferring to other surfaces, mostly through rubbing.


Crocking is the term used for the dye rubbing off of the carpet as a result of inadequate steaming during the setting process. It’s a result of the dye not properly penetrating or chemically bonding to the fibres.


Crushing or matting happens when carpet fibres become compressed and bent. This especially occurs in high-traffic areas, and almost every type of carpet will experience this over time in some areas.


Beneath a carpet, the cushion is a material layer that offers comfort, support, and insulation. It reduces noise and provides a plush feeling underfoot. Choosing the right cushion is crucial for warranty validity. It's also commonly called padding or underlay.

Cushion-backed Carpet

The carpet is engineered with an integrated cushion, padding, or underlay material that is essential to its backing.

Cut Pile

A carpet showcasing cut yarn loops that yield a visually textured appearance and provide a satisfying tactile experience.

- Pattern Cut Pile

Crafted from luxuriously soft Saxony yarn, this remarkable carpet showcases an elegant aesthetic achieved through the meticulous fusion of cut and loop piles, maintaining a consistent height.



The metric equivalent of denier is the total weight in grams of 10,000 meters. Decitex is employed in Europe and Canada for this purpose.


A deodoriser is a specially designed product created to efficiently eliminate or neutralise unpleasant odours from carpets.


When the primary carpet backing separates from the secondary backing due to various factors, such as wear and tear, moisture damage, or improper installation techniques.


Adding polymer additives or modifying the cross-section design of synthetic fibres can reduce their brightness. Delustering enhances the ability to hide soil, improving the professional aesthetic.


Denier is an essential metric in the manufacturing of carpets as it signifies the yarn density per unit area. This metric holds immense significance in guaranteeing the utmost quality and durability.


Density refers to the amount of pile yarn per unit area of carpet and the proximity of the tufts. Carpets with higher density exhibit improved resilience against crushing and matting.


Enzyme-based cleaners that are specifically formulated to efficiently break down or “digest” stains, rendering them more susceptible to removal.

Dimensional Stability

The carpet retains its size and shape after installation. Tufted carpet achieves dimensional stability with a secondary backing, while woven carpet uses stable backing yarns and latex application for stability.

Double-glued Seams

Double-gluing the seams securely attaches the carpet to the floor, preventing delamination and edge ravel.

Drop Match

A drop match refers to a pattern that extends diagonally or at a 45-degree angle across the carpet, precisely aligning with the edge of the seam.

Dry Cleaning

A low-moisture cleaning technique that involves the application of a dry cleaning solution to the carpeting, followed by a thorough vacuuming to effectively remove dirt and stains.

Dry Soil

Loose soil and debris that accumulates on carpets, leading to a less appealing appearance that makes the carpets look dull and dirty.


A term used for physically or chemically modified fibres aimed at reducing brightness. Extra heavy traffic pertains to daily traffic exceeding 10,000, encompassing all types of traffic and tracked-in dirt.

Dwell Time

The optimal timeframe that is the recommended duration for which a cleaning solution should be left sitting on carpets before a cleaning method is used.


A coloured substance that chemically bonds to the substrate, enhancing its appearance with vibrant hues. The dye forms a strong, long-lasting bond that will stay for a long time before wear and fading starts to set in.

Dye Bands

In continuous dyeing, stops or an uneven application of dye; either too heavy or too light, can result in dye bands, which often run longitudinally.

Dye Spots

Dye spots are scattered marks that result from a high concentration of dye of the same or different colour.

Dye Streaks

Dye streaks occur when the dye is applied unevenly due to rubbing creases during the dyeing process, a nozzle blockage or inadequate dispersion of the dye.


Encapsulation Cleaning

Encapsulation cleaning is a low-moisture cleaning method that involves using a cleaning solution that forms a crystallising residue around dirt particles and stains. This residue is invisible and will be removed from subsequent vacuuming.


The process of extracting dirt, stains, and cleaning solutions using an extractor or vacuum machine, commonly a truck mount or portable extractor. Some types of extractor machines can be hired from local retailers.

- Hot Water Extraction

A popular cleaning technique, commonly known as ‘Steam Cleaning’, employs hot, pressurised water that is sprayed onto the carpets through a wand and is extracted using an extractor or vacuum machine.

- Cold Water Extraction

The same process and machines are used in the hot water extraction method, but cold water is used instead. This is particularly used for certain situations such as blood removal where the use of hot water is not the correct or ideal process.


Enzymes are made from non-pathogenic bacteria, which aids in fighting stains and odours through a natural process.


Face Weight

A fibre weight measurement method, excluding the backing, is employed to determine the total weight of the carpet fibre per square yard.


All carpets will lose colour over time due to exposure and age. This is known as fading and it’s unavoidable.


The material that makes up your carpet or upholstered furnishings. The fibre spectrum includes fibres such as wool, polyester, nylon, cotton, acrylic, polypropylene, linen and recycled materials.

Filtration Soil Lines

Dark lines that are commonly sighted on carpets near skirting boards or under doors. This is caused by polluted air particles passing through cracks and cavities. Carpets act as a filter and trap these particles.


Finishing is the post-tufting and dyeing treatment of carpets. It involves applying secondary backing, printing, brushing, foam cushion, shearing, soil-resistant treatment, dyeing, and more.


Flame-resistant materials gradually self-extinguish when the ignition source is removed. Fabric or yarn flame resistance depends on fibre properties, yarn twist, fabric construction, and flame retardants.


Flocked carpet, a popular choice in interior design, is carefully crafted by attaching tufts of wool or cotton fibres to a resilient backing.


Loose fibre fragments remaining on a carpet's surface after manufacturing are called "fuzzing" or "shedding." Regular vacuuming and proper carpet maintenance can effectively address this issue.


Similar to blooming, carpet fibres can experience damage, including expansion and changes in texture, particularly due to heavy foot traffic or excessive agitation or rubbing.


The ornamental border of a rug. They require careful cleaning to prevent damage.

Fusion Bonding

Carpet fabrication produces 6" wide or modular tiles. Yarn is embedded in a liquid vinyl compound between two backings, creating a sandwich. The sandwich is split to make two carpets at once. This process uses only spun yarn to cut pile carpets.

Fusion Bonded Carpets

Fusion-bonded carpet utilises a layered vinyl or plastic compound and fiberglass scrim to ensure robust dimensional stability.

- For Tufted Carpets

1. Primary backing: Pile yarn is inserted into the fabric using needles during tufting. Polypropylene is commonly used as carpet primary backing; previously, jute was used.

2. Secondary backing: A fabric layer is laminated to the back of the carpet to reinforce and stabilise it. Woven or nonwoven polypropylene materials are commonly used for secondary backing.

- For Woven Carpets

Woven carpets have backings made of "construction yarns" like chain warp, stuffer warp, and shot or fill. These yarns are intricately interwoven with the face yarn during carpet fabrication.

Fusion Lines

Moving heavy furniture across the carpet creates friction, resulting in heat that causes the carpet fibres to fuse. Regrettably, this fusion is permanent as it causes damage to the fibre, so it isn’t something that can be rectified from cleaning.


Fuzzing occurs when loose fibres or snags create fluffy particles on carpets. To tackle this issue, hiring professional carpet cleaners with the expertise to effectively use duckbill napping shears and eliminate fuzzing is a good course of action.



The gauge denotes the measurement between two needle points in knitted or tufted carpets, commonly expressed in fractional inches.

Greige Goods

Greige goods, also known as "gray" refer to carpets that are in their state without any dyes or finishing treatments applied.


Certain professional carpet cleaners utilise a grooming tool, before the cleaning process while others employ it after then clean. This includes the application of a treatment and fluffing the carpet fibres to achieve a polished appearance at the end of the service.


Hybrid Carpet

A manufactured carpet that combines high more than one type of fibre.



The Institute of Inspection Cleaning and Restoration Certification (IICRC) is widely considered to be the pinnacle industry organisation that provides certification and establishes industry standards for inspection, cleaning and restoration. Supported by trade partners, the IICRC serves over 25 countries and has offices globally.


These are the marks left on carpets after objects such as furniture has been in one place for a period of time. Contrary to what a lot of people assume, the carpet cleaning process will not lift or restore these indents to an even carpet pile.


When there are pests present in the carpeting, usually carpet moths or carpet beetles, you will have an infestation that needs to be treated either through pest control or deep cleaning.

International Grey Scale for Colour Change

A standard comparative method assesses colour modification, offering a scale ranging from 5 (no change) to 1 (significant change). This method is valuable in quantifying the extent of colour transformation.

International Grey Scale for Staining

A widely used standardised comparison method is typically utilised to assess the degree of staining, yielding a scale from 5 (representing no stain) to 1 (representing a severe stain).

In-plant Cleaning

A meticulous carpet cleaning process is conducted at a dedicated facility, where highly trained professionals utilise cutting-edge equipment and specially formulated cleaning solutions to clean and dry a carpet.

Interim Cleaning

A cleaning process that is implemented between scheduled deep cleanings to remove surface dirt and stains proficiently.

Interim Maintenance

The regular cleaning and maintenance of carpets that is crucial in preventing the accumulation of dirt and stains, which can harm their longevity and appearance.

ISO (The International Organisation for Standardisation)

A global non-governmental organization that endeavours to establish international agreements, subsequently disseminated as International Standards.


Level Loop

The carpet's fibre is meticulously stitched into uncut loops of uniform size, resulting in a refined and even surface.

Light Fastness

The resistance of dyed textile materials to the adverse effects of sunlight


Lignin is a class of intricate organic polymers that play a pivotal role in the formation of structural materials within the supportive tissues of most plants. When lignin is over-wet or exposed to high pH levels, it can oxidise and dissolve, thus wicking to the surface in a brownish or reddish tinge known as “Cellulosic Browning”.

Loop Pile

A woven carpet pile surface or tufted is distinguished by uncut loops that form the face yarns. Loop piles can showcase a level, multilevel appearance, or textured.


Fibres, yarns, carpets, and fabrics can vary in brightness or reflectivity. Synthetic fibres are classified as semi-bright, bright, mid-dull, or semi-dull. The lustre of finished carpets is influenced by yarn heat setting, dyeing, and finishing methods. Duller carpet yarns are preferred for their soil-concealing ability in high-traffic commercial areas.


Maintenance Program

Regular cleaning sessions that are meticulously planned and customised to cater to the distinct requirements of a home or businesses.


This is caused by the entanglement of carpet fibres of the carpet piles surface. Matting may arise due to tip bloom, fibres slippage, adhesive residues, or soil build-up.


Carpet memory, or texture retention, refers to the remarkable capability of a carpet to regain its initial texture and shape following compression or frequent foot traffic.

Metameric Colour Match

The colour match happens when two materials look the same under certain lighting conditions but not under others. Metameric colour matches often occur when different pigments or dyes are used to colour the materials.

Multilevel Loop Pile

A woven or tufted carpet style showcases tufts of different pile heights, resulting in a sculptured appearance with intricate patterns and subtle shading.



The alignment of the fibre weave in the carpet backing is called the nap. For a consistent look, installing the carpet with the nap running in the same direction is recommended.

Needle Punched

Needle-punched carpet is meticulously stitched into the backing material, ensuring a durable and precise construction.


Carpeting that is manufactured through non-weaving techniques, particularly those that have mechanical, employing chemical, fusion, or adhesive methods to bond fibres together. Non-weaving techniques are also used in the production of primary backing materials.



An oxidizer is a cleaning agent that reacts with oxygen and is commonly used to treat stains like urine and coffee. Oxidizers effectively remove various stains and are safe for most fibres except wool, although professional cleaners know how to use them on wool safely.



Also referred to as a "carpet cushion", the padding is a layer of cushion installed between the carpet and floor. It plays a vital role in prolonging the carpet's lifespan, preserving its appearance, and ensuring optimal quality.

Pattern Match

Achieving precise pattern matches on seams can be challenging due to technological limitations in carpet finishing. However, a skilled carpet installer can usually achieve a satisfactory match.

Pattern Streaks

Streaked patterned carpet occurs when linear elements are strategically placed together, resulting in a distinct lengthwise effect. Rather than being a defect, it is a characteristic of specific designs.

Patterned Loop

A woven or tufted carpet style showcases tufts arranged in a loop form, either in a defined design or random pattern.

pH Level

pH is a logarithmic measure of scale that indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. A pH level of 7 is considered neutral in scientific terms.


Also referred to as a "nap," pile refers to the visibly exposed part of carpet fibres. There are different types and styles of piles, including cut piles and loop piles.

Pile Crush

Pile thickness decreases when tufts are compressed by foot traffic and furniture pressure, causing them to collapse. Irreversible damage may occur if the yarn lacks resilience or the pile density is insufficient for the traffic load.

Pile Height

The height of the carpet pile from the top of the backing to the tip of the fibre. You can measure the tuft length by starting from the top surface of the primary backing and extending to the tips. Gently extend the pile tufts without stretching them for accurate measurements.

Pile Reversal/Shading

Pile reversal or shading can occur due to fibres bending in different directions, thus resulting in light and dark areas when viewed in different lighting. It particularly occurs in wool carpets and can also happen in high-traffic areas.

Pile Thickness

The thickness of the finished carpet is determined by subtracting the backing thickness from the total thickness. Pile weight, measured in ounces, indicates the weight of the fibre per square yard of carpet.


With frequent use, fibres from different tufts of carpet can intertwine, forming compacted fibre masses known as "pills." These pills can be easily removed by carefully trimming with scissors.


A cut pile carpet is easily recognised by its carpet fibres that are trimmed evenly to the length resulting in a luxurious surface.


Yarn count refers to the number of intertwined yarns, in carpet yarn. For instance a two ply yarn consists of two twisted yarns in each tuft. In cut pile carpets it is essential to use heat set plied yarns to prevent them from unravelling due, to foot traffic.

Power Stretcher

A specialised tool is used during the installation of broadloom carpets to efficiently eliminate wrinkles and ripples ensuring a flawless appearance.


Before deep cleaning, a preliminary cleaning solution is applied to fibres to effectively loosen dirt and stains. This prepares the area for a more efficient cleaning.


The process of targeting individual stains on carpets before deep cleaning. This helps in breaking down the stains so that they become easier to remove or reduce later.

Printed Carpet

Printed carpets showcase designs that are achieved through printing methods, like flatbed screen printing, rotary screen printing and computer programmed jet injection printing.


A protective film that is applied after a deep clean to enhance the durability of carpets and make them more resistant to dirt and stains. Carpet and upholstery protection is commonly known as Scotchgard but carpet cleaning companies will use a commercial-grade protector.



A cleaning agent that removes oxygen from stains.


After cleaning, a small amount of cleaning solution residue can remain on the carpets. This residue has the potential to attract dirt, which can lead to a dull appearance of the carpets. Some cleaning solutions are designed to be left in the fibres, and this residue is safe as the technology prevents dirt particles from sticking.


The procedure of re-tightening buckled or loose carpets is undertaken to restore their appearance.

Restorative Cleaning

A thorough cleaning procedure that is implemented to restore heavily soiled carpets, returning them to their near-original pristine condition.

Random Sheared

Carpet texture is achieved by gently shearing either level loop or high-low loop, creating a cut-and-loop texture that adds sophistication to its appearance.


The pattern repeat on a carpet is the distance between one point in the design and where the identical pattern reappears, both lengthwise and width wise. When aiming for a precise pattern match, some carpet waste is unavoidable, whether it's a drop or set match pattern.


Carpet resilience is its ability to regain texture and thickness even after foot traffic or pressure from furniture.


Heat and humidity can cause wrinkles in wall-to-wall carpeting. This will have the appearance of ruffled or wave-like patterns. Seek guidance from a professional carpet retailer or installer to restore tautness using a power stretcher as cleaning will not rectify this.

Rotary Machine

A state-of-the-art cleaning machine that utilises robust rotating brushes or pads to effectively agitate carpets, penetrating deep into the fibres and efficiently eliminating even the most stubborn dirt and stains.



A popular carpet and fabric protector, designed to repel stains and extend fibre lifespan.


The point where two pieces of carpet meet is called the seam. Since carpet is typically made in 12-foot-wide rolls, avoiding seams is often hard to achieve.


After installation, a new carpet may shed fibres for a few weeks. Shedding is expected in wool carpets and cut pile carpeting but less of a concern for synthetic carpets. Vacuuming is the best solution to address this issue and it’s very common with natural fibres.


Dirt particles, germs, and grime can build up in carpet fibres, causing soiling. Establish a maintenance program with regular professional cleaning services and routine vacuuming to prevent this.

Soil Retardant

A chemical finish is carefully applied to carpet fibres or surfaces to effectively inhibit soil attachment, thereby greatly improving cleanliness and enhancing maintenance efficiency. This is also another term for fibre protection treatment.

Spot Cleaning

A technique for effectively treating localised stains using specialised cleaning solutions and techniques.

Spotting Agents

Cleaning products are specifically formulated to target specific types of stains or soilage.


Sprouting is when a tuft or fibre sticks up above the carpet pile. You can trim smaller sprouts with scissors, but it's best to seek help from a professional carpet cleaner, retailer, or installer who could achieve a better looking trim.

Steam Cleaning

Steam cleaning is correctly known as ‘Hot water extraction’, and it’s a technique that combines hot pressurised water and a vacuum to thoroughly extract deep seated dirt, stubborn stains, and grime from carpets.


When liquids or other substances are spilled they can cause discolouration or marks on a fibre.

Static Control Test

A static control test evaluates the intensity of discharge that occurs under specific conditions.

Static Electricity

When electrical charge builds up on carpet fibres it creates what we call static electricity. This can attract dirt and dust particles towards the carpet.

Static Shock

To address the issue of electrostatic energy accumulation and release on carpets, static control conductive systems can be utilised. These systems effectively dissipate charge ensuring that it remains below the human sensitivity threshold of 3.5kV.


The carpet installation over a separate cushion entails using a tackles strip in combination with a power stretcher.

Surface Energy

The measurement of the surface's inclination, specifically the carpet yarn, to repel molecules of another substance is known as surface energy. A low surface energy indicates a repelling phenomenon.


Texture Retention

Texture retention, also referred to as carpet memory, pertains to the ability of the tufts to uphold their shape even in high-traffic conditions.


Tufting is the first stage in the carpet manufacturing process. It is known as the ‘loop’ of the pile, which can be either cut or uncut.

Traffic Areas

The carpet areas subjected to frequent foot traffic are prone to accumulating substantial dirt and exhibiting visible signs of wear and tear.

Traffic Lane Spotters

A specialised cleaning solution that is applied to high-traffic areas of carpet to aid in breaking down dirt, soils, stains, and marks.


When manufacturing carpets loops of yarn are meticulously inserted into the primary carpet backing.



The cushioning layer of the carpet can be made from materials such as sponge rubber, foam, felt, and even recycled plastic.



Vacuuming involves the extraction of debris and loose soil from carpets using a vacuum cleaner.


VLM stands for "Very Low Moisture", and it's a carpet cleaning method that utilises up to 80% less moisture than traditional steam cleaning.



A tool used in conjunction with an extractor machine for applying pressurised water and extracting dirt and stains from carpets.

Walk Off Mats

Entrance mats play a vital role in containing and minimising the spread of dirt within a property. These mats effectively remove soil from shoes, absorb moisture, and significantly reduce soil transfer to carpets.

Waterfall Installation

Stairs have treads (horizontal part) and risers (vertical member). The waterfall installation method secures the carpet at the back of the tread and the bottom of each riser, extending its lifespan. Worn treads can be flipped and reinstalled, placing the worn areas over the risers.

Water Hardness

The mineral content, such as magnesium and calcium, present in the local water supply utilised for carpet cleaning that can influence the effectiveness of cleaning solutions.


After treating and seemingly removing stains, the stain can ‘wick’ back to the surface and reappear. This is not the result of technician error, and there is no way to know whether a stain will wick-back or not.

Woven Backing

A tufted carpet term that refers to the primary or secondary backing that is produced by the weaving process. Generally, secondary backings are woven using materials such as jute or polypropylene.


Yarn Count

Denier is a widely used numerical indicator for determining the yarn size of BCF yarns, whereas cotton count is commonly employed for spun yarns.

Yarn Denier (bundle)

The weight of a filament yarn bundle spanning 9,000 meters is measured in grams. Deniers for common commercial carpet yarn generally range from 1,200d to 5,000d.

Yarn Ply

Plied yarn is produced by twisting multiple individual fibres together. Yarn weight denotes the overall quantity of yarn utilised in carpet manufacturing, measured in ounces per square yard.



When fibres are snagged and get pulled from the carpet backing, thus causing long sections of missing yarn.